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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20

Visual facial perception of postsurgical cleft lip scarring assessed by laypeople via eye-tracking

1 School of Life Sciences, PontifÍcia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil
2 Professor, Professor of Orthodontics, Southwest Bahia State University - UESB, Jequié, Bahia, Brazil, Diplomate of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics – BBO, Brazil
3 Graduate Dentistry Program in Orthodontics, School of Life Sciences, PontifÍcia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil, Diplomate of Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Postdoctoral Fellow at The Center for Advanced Dental Education at Saint Louis University, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Orlando Motohiro Tanaka
Graduate Dentistry Program, PontifÍcia Universidade Católica do Paraná - PUCPR, R. Imaculada Conceição, 1155, CEP.: 80215-901 – CURITIBA – PR
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jos.JOS_76_20

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OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the visual facial perception in response to scars associated with repaired cleft lip (CL) on a male adolescent model, as assessed by eye-tracking technology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Unilateral and bilateral facial images of repaired CL on the upper lip and nasal asymmetry were added to an image of a male adolescent model, using Photoshop CS5 software. 40 laypeople eye movements were tracked by an infrared sensor of the Eye Tribe hardware in conjunction with OGAMA software. An analysis of variance was used to identify differences in total fixation time for the added areas of interest. A visual analog scale of attractiveness with a questionnaire were also incorporated into the study. Statistical analysis was performed using a significance level of P < 0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were noted between the image with no scar and the image featuring a unilateral scar for total fixation time associated with the right eye (p = 0.002) and right nose area (p = 0.003), in addition to the numbers of fixations for the right eye (p = 0.005) and right nose area (p = 0.007). Comparing the image with no scar with the image featuring a bilateral scar showed a significant difference only for the number of fixations on the right eye (p = 0.005). The heatmaps and fixation point maps for both the unilateral and bilateral scar images indicated increased fixation for the scar areas. For the image with no scar, increased fixation was captured for the right eye area. Pearson's correlation coefficient test showed a moderate positive (p = 0.692) relationship when comparing to unilateral and bilateral cleft scars. CONCLUSIONS: The participating laypeople perceived the cleft-repaired faces and did not perceive any difference in attractiveness between the images featuring the unilateral and bilateral postsurgical clefts and lip scarring.

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