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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 39

Prevalence of orthodontic treatment needs in permanent dentition in the population of Gulf Cooperation Council countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

1 Specialist Orthodontist, Bariq Al Ebtesama Dental and Orthodontic Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences; King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Praveen B Shivanna
Specialist Orthodontist, Bariq Al Ebtesama Dental and Orthodontic Clinic, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jos.jos_126_22

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The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to comprehensively analyze the existing information on the prevalence of the need for orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition stage among populations in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. For observational studies in GCC countries, the key terms were electronically searched in Science Direct, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Reviews, Google Scholar, and Sage databases (1990–2021). The bias risk for the selected studies was evaluated using the modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement. Thirteen studies reported on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment needs among 33,134 children in GCC countries in permanent dentition with an age range of 11–19 years satisfied the inclusion criteria. Out of the 13 studies, 9 reported on the prevalence of malocclusion, 11 reported on the prevalence of occlusal traits, and 12 reported on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment needs as per the Dental Health Component (DHC) of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), 4 reported as per both DHC and Aesthetic Component (AC) of IOTN, and 1 reported as per only AC of IOTN. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated that the pooled malocclusion prevalence rate was 10.60% (confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.093–0.076) with 8.58% Class I (CI 95%: 0.074–0.188), 2.09% Class II (CI 95%: 0.014–0.058), and 0.93% Class III (CI 95%: 0.005–0.018) malocclusions. The most prevalent type of occlusal trait was spacing (13.10%, CI 95%: 0.018–0.169), followed by crowding (4.96%, CI 95%: 0.017–0.091). The pooled prevalence of borderline and definite needs for orthodontic treatment based on DHC and AC of IOTN was 0.82% (CI 95%: 0.014–0.035), 1.13% (CI 95%: 0.011–0.091), 4.08% (CI 95%: 0.009–0.114), and 2.06% (CI 95%: 0.002–0.048), respectively. The findings were heterogeneous (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs was not high in the GCC population.

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